ARGENTINA

Total and added sugars consumption in Argentina: Their contribution to daily energy intake. Results from Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS)

Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the intake of total sugars (TS) and added sugars (AS) in Argentina based on the local data of the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS).

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the urban Argentine population (n = 1266). The sample was stratified by age group (15–65 years), gender, geographic region and socioeconomic level (SEL). TS and AS intake were obtained by two 24-hour recalls (R24) and analysed using the Nutrition Data System for Research Software 2013.

Results: On average, TS consumption in Argentina was 114.3 g/day, accounting for 39.8% of the total carbohydrate intake and 20.6% total energy (TE) intake. Overall, 77.2% of the TS intake consisted of AS (90.4 g/day), contributing to 30.4% of total carbohydrate intake and 15.9%TE. Men consume more TS and AS (in g/day), with no difference in the AS %TE between men and women. The consumption of sugars decreased with age, with adolescents consuming more AS and older adults more intrinsic sugars. The intake of AS was higher in low SEL.

Conclusions: In Argentina, the intake of AS was 50% above the recommendations. Younger and socially vulnerable people are at higher risk of excessive intake.

PRINCIPALES FUENTES DE AZÚCARES DE ADICIÓN EN ARGENTINA

The high consumption of added sugars in the diet of the Argentine population and its consequent effect on health are current concerns both at the clinical and public health levels. The objective of this study was to determine the main sources of added sugars in the Argentine diet and to determine the proportional energy contribution of each of them. The sample consisted of 1266 individuals, representative of the country’s urban population from 15 to 65 years old, stratified by region, age, gender and socio-economic level. Two 24-hour intake records and one socio-economic questionnaire were carried out. Among the total food and beverages consumed, 26.9% of added sugars was contributed by soft drinks and 23.8% by infusions. The third place, with 15.4%, was obtained by baked goods (bread, cookies, etc.) and the fourth, with 12%, from ready-to-prepare juices, ahead of sweets, candies and dairy products. Men, compared to women, consumed significantly more added sugars in soft drinks (32.6 vs. 22.1%) and women more in infusions (25.5% vs. 21.8%), baked goods, sugar and honey. 

La pobreza como determinante de la calidad alimentaria en Argentina. Resultados del Estudio Argentino de Nutrición y Salud 

socio-economic differences lead to food and nutritional inequalities. Diet is a modifiable risk factor by public health activities, on

the way to the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases.

Objective: to estimate food inequalities in Argentina based on the socioeconomic level of the population, analyzing the consumption of different food groups.

 

   BRASIL

Brazilian Study of Nutrition and Health (EBANS) – Brazilian data of ELANS: methodological opportunities and challenges

Epidemiological studies with dietary variables are complex methodologically, being the researcher responsible for an- ticipating, controlling, reducing and preventing methodological errors. Obesity accounts for almost one-third of the world’s population and has consequences for childhood and adolescence. Multifactorial disorder must be faced in several aspects, being food and physical activity, modifiable risk factors. The EBANS aims to perform...

Is it possible to modify the obesogenic environment? - Brazil case

In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity has reached increasingly high rates among children and adolescents worldwide as the result of interactions between obesogenic environments and genetics. In Brazil, a middle-income country, the rates of overweight and obesity reached 18.9% and 8.7%, respectively, in 2015, corresponding to a prevalence of excess weight of 27.6%. Concomitant with these worrying data, the prevalence of insufficient physical activity in adolescents is 66.2% based on objective accelerometer measurements. The Brazilian government has taken concrete actions to contain the advance...

Dietary sources of sodium among Brazilian population: data from Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

It is already established that Brazilians have high sodium consumption1-3. According to data from the National Health Survey (NHS)4, approximately one in six Brazilian adults per- ceived that they have high consumption of salt. The fre- quency of this condition was higher among men than in women, showing an inverse relation between age groups4. This perception responds to the average daily intake of sodium in Brazil, that is, 4.11 g/d by general population, 4.31 g/d by men, and 3.92 by women2...

Food sources of added sugar: Brazilian data (EBANS)

Introduction: Brazil has the second highest per capita consumption of sugar in the world and added sugar (AS) con- tributes to 12.6% of the total energy intake.

Objective: To investigate the main food sources of AS in- take in Brazilian population, according to sex, age, nutritional status, and Brazilian macro-regions.

Methods: 2,000 individuals aged 1

 

   CHILE

Assessment of Diet Quality in Chilean Urban Population through the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010: A Cross-Sectional Study

Most worldwide causes of disease and death are strongly associated with dietary factors and the application of eating indexes has proved to be a useful tool to determine diet quality in populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diet quality in Chile through the application of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010). A representative sample (n = 879) of Chilean urban population aged 15–65 years old from the Latin American Study...

 

   VENEZUELA

Estudio Venezolano de Nutrición y Salud: Consumo de energía y nutrientes. Grupo del Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud

La información del consumo de alimentos y bebidas en la población venezolana esindispensable para identificar problemas nutricionales y grupos en riesgo, por edad, áreas geográficasy niveles socioeconómicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las características de la ingestapromedio de alimentos en la población entre 15 y 65 años en Venezuela durante el año 2015. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 1132 sujetos, a quienes se les aplicó 2 recordatorios de 24 horas....

Estudio Venezolano de Nutrición y Salud: Diseño y metodología. Grupo del Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud

La evaluación de los componentes del estilo de vida de los humanos en particular, del consumode bebidas y alimentos y la actividad física resulta crucial en el entendimiento del bienestar y la calidadde vida de los individuos. Con el objetivo de actualizar esta información en Latinoamérica, se realizó un estudio transversal denominado Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS), mediante muestreo aleatorio, polietápico por cuotas y estandarización metodológica para recopilar...

Estudio Venezolano de Nutrición y Salud 2015 en el ámbito del Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud.

El Estudio Venezolano de Nutrición y Salud (EVANS 2015), evaluó 1132 individuos, para analizar desde una perspectiva epidemiológica, las interrelaciones entre el perfil antropométrico, la ingesta de alimentos y bebidas y la actividad física. Se encontraron desequilibrios en la ingesta deenergía, macro y micronutrientes, sociales, regionales, por sexos y edad. El promedio de ingesta demacro y micronutrientes fue superior en los hombres y disminuyó con la edad. Sólo 14,8% de la población presentó ...

Estudio Venezolano de Nutrición y Salud: Patrón de consumo de alimentos. Grupo del Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud.

Los patrones de consumo se utilizan para identificar el tipo y variedad de alimentos queconsume una población de manera habitual. La pregunta que se intenta responder en este trabajo es la siguiente: ¿qué es lo que usualmente comen los venezolanos y en qué cantidades? Se utilizan los resultados del Estudio Venezolano de Nutrición y Salud (EVANS), 2015, para identificar un patrón general de alimentación y relacionarlo con la ingesta de energía y macronutrientes....

Estudio Venezolano de Nutrición y Salud: Perfil antropométrico y patrón de actividad física. Grupo del Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud.

Investigaciones epidemiológicas reconocen la importancia de la actividad física en lapromoción de la salud especialmente en el campo de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y la obesidad. El Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS) en Venezuela, de corte transversal, ejecutadoentre 2015, definió el perfil antropométrico y evaluó el patrón de actividad física de la población venezolana entre 15 y 65 años....

   Costa Rica

Uso de suplementos nutricionales en la población urbana costarricense

Diversos estudios revelan que el perfil de los consumidores de suplementos nutricionales corresponde a individuos con estilos de vida saludables y ambiente sociodemográfico favorable. Sin embargo, en Costa Rica no hay información disponible referente al consumo de suplementos nutricionales a nivel nacional. Esta investigación pretendió analizar el uso y las características sociodemográficas, antropométricas y de ingesta de los consumidores de suplementos nutricionales, en población urbana costarricense de 15 a 65 años.

Consumo de azúcar añadido en la población urbana costarricense: estudio latinoamericano de nutrición y salud ELANS-Costa Rica

High consumption of added sugars has been associated with a greater risk of chronic diseases, appearance of caries and weight gain, which implies a lower quality of life for the population and an increase in costs for the health system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of added sugar and its related factors in urban Costa Rican population.

Hábitos alimentarios de la población urbana costarricense

Es sabido que los malos hábitos alimentarios contribuyen a la aparición de enfermedades crónicas, como la obesidad y la diabetes mellitus, sin embargo, no existe información actualizada respecto a la alimentación de la población urbana en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de la población costarricense incluida en el Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS).

DIVERSIDAD DE LA DIETA EN LA POBLACIÓN URBANA COSTARRICENSE

El índice de diversidad de la dieta (IDD) es una medida de la calidad de la alimentación, ya que entre mayor sea la variedad de la dieta, mayor será la posibilidad de cubrir las recomendaciones de nutrientes esenciales.

Objetivo general: Determinar el IDD en una

muestra representativa de la población urbana

costarricense.

Consumo de frutas y vegetales en la población urbana costarricense 

El consumo suficiente de frutas y vegetales ha sido ampliamente asociado con diversos beneficios para la salud, entre ellos, el actuar como factor protector contra el desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, cáncer y enfermedades mentales. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) recomienda un consumo diario de 400 gramos entre frutas y vegetales. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo la caracterización del consumo de frutas y vegetales, según variables sociodemográficas en la población costarricense y el cumplimiento de la recomendación de la OMS. 

Perfil antropométrico y prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en la población urbana de Costa Rica entre los 20 y 65 años agrupados por sexo:

la obesidad es una enfermedad que afecta en gran medida a la región de las Américas. Esta condición implica un aumento de la

morbi mortalidad y el riesgo de enfermedades crónicas, como las enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes tipo 2 y algunos tipos de cáncer. La prevalencia de exceso de peso en Costa Rica fue del 59,7 % y del 77,3 % en mujeres de 20 a 44 años y de 45 a 65 años, respectivamente, y del 62,4 % en hombres de 20-65 años en el periodo 2008-2009; sin embargo, se desconoce cómo ha evolucionado esta condición en la última década.

Prevalencia de ingesta inadecuada de micro nutrientes en la población urbana de Costa Rica

Prevalencia de ingesta inadecuada de

micronutrientes en la población urbana de Costa Rica.

La inadecuación de micronutrientes es frecuente en los

países en vías de desarrollo. En Costa Rica existe poca

información acerca de la ingesta de micronutrientes y del

impacto de los programas de fortificación obligatoria de

alimentos.

ARTÍCULOS REGIONALES

Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS): rationale and study design
Background: Obesity is growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. Lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity and dietary intake have been largely associated with obesity in many countries; however studies that combine nutrition and physical activity assessment in representative samples of Latin American countries are lacking. The aim of this study is to present the design rationale of the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health/Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS) with a particular focus on its quality control procedures and recruitment processes...
Developing a cooperative multicenter study in Latin America: Lessons learned from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health Project

This report examines the challenges of conducting a multicenter, cross-sectional study of coun- tries with diverse cultures, and shares the lessons learned. The Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) was used as a feasibility study involving the most populous cities of eight countries in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela) in 2014–2015, about 40% of the population of the Americas. The target sample included 9 000 individuals, 15–65 years of age, and was strati ed by geo- graphic location (only urban areas), gender, age, and socioeconomic status...

Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study 

Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled....

Total and Added Sugar Intake: Assessment in Eight Latin American Countries

In previous centuries, sugar was used as a commodity currency and represented wealth [1,2]. In this way, it was common to use high amounts of sugar in the food preparations to demonstrate possessions, and this influenced the taste preferences as a result of experiential learning that was passed down the generations [1,3]. On the other hand, sugar is traditionally used as preservative of foods, just as salt [1].

Nowadays, despite some studies having shown that sugar intake is decreasing [4–7], globally a high sugar intake is often seen [4,8–16]. In epidemiological studies developed around the world, total sugar was observed ranging from 14.5 to 21.9% of total energy intake (%TE) in adults of both genders assessed in Italy [9] and individuals of both genders, 18–34 years...

Energy intake and food sources of eight Latin American countries: results from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS)

Few previous studies in Latin America (LA) have provided data on dietary intake composition with a standardized methodology. The present study aimed to characterize energy intake (EI) and to describe the main food sources of energy in representative samples of the urban population from eight LA countries from the Latin American Study in Nutrition and Health (ELANS).

Design: Cross-sectional study. Usual dietary intake was assessed with two non- consecutive 24 h dietary recalls...

Prevalence and determinants of misreporting of energy intake among Latin American populations: results from ELANS study

Underreporting and overreporting of energy intake (EI) have been recognized as potential sources of bias. Dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents, but little is known about the determinants of misreporting of EI among Latin American (LA) populations. This study was conducted using data from the multicenter Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health that consisted of information about sociodemographics, physical activity, and dietary intake from 9218 individuals aged 15 to 65 years...

Association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity with neck circumference in eight Latin American countries

Physical activity is a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of obesity. There are relatively few studies that explore the effect of accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on neck circumference (NC), most of them confined to single high-income countries. The present study investigated the association of accelerometer-determined MVPA with NC in adolescents and adults from eight Latin American countries, which are mostly upper-middle income countries...

Diet Quality and Diet Diversity in Eight Latin American Countries: Results from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health

This study aimed to assess diet quality score (DQS), considering healthy and unhealthy foods and nutrients, and diet diversity score (DDS) as indicators of risk of noncommunicable diseases in eight Latin American countries, and to verify the possible differences considering country, sex, age, socioeconomic, and nutritional status. A multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 9218 individuals (age range 15–65 years)...

Socio-demographic patterns of public, private and active travel in Latin America

Active travel such as walking or cycling has been associated with more favorable health outcomes. However, evidence on patterns of transportation in Latin America is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify and characterise socio-demographic patterns of public, private and active travel in Latin American countries.

Socio-demographic patterning of self-reported physical activity and sitting time in Latin America

Low levels of physical activity (PA) and prolonged sitting time (ST) increase the risk of non- communicable diseases and mortality, and can be influenced by socio-demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to use self-report data to characterise socio-demographic patterns of PA and ST in eight Latin American countries.

Latin American consumption of major food groups

The Latin American (LA) region is still facing an ongoing epidemiological transition and shows a complex public health scenario regarding non-communicable diseases (NCDs). A healthy diet and consumption of specific food groups may decrease the risk of NCDs, how- ever there is a lack of dietary intake data in LA countries.

Anthropometry, dietary intake, physical activity and sitting time patterns in adolescents aged 15–17 years

Although there is high prevalence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors among Latin American adolescents, there is limited evidence on dietary intake and physical activity (PA) patterns in this population. Therefore, we characterized anthropometry, dietary intake, PA and sitting time (ST) in adolescents aged 15–17 years from eight Latin American countries.

Socio-demographic patterning of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviours in eight Latin American countries

Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SB) are two independent risk factors for non-communicable diseases. However, there is a lack of objectively measured information on PA and SB in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to use objective data to characterise socio-demographic patterns of PA and SB in eight Latin American countries.

Socio-demographic patterns of public, private and active travel in Latin America 

Active travel such as walking or cycling has been associated with more favorable health outcomes. However, evidence on patterns of transportation in Latin America is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify and characterise socio-demographic patterns of public, private and active travel in Latin American countries. 

Methodological design for the assessment of physical activity and sedentary time in eight Latin American countries 

Worldwide studies of physical activity and sedentary time have historically under-represented low- and middle- income countries due to the lack of surveillance data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods and procedures used for the assessment of physical activity and sedentary time in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health ( Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud ; ELANS). 

Self - report versus accelerometer - measured physical activity

Most population based studies from Latin America have used questionnaires to measure physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB). Low reliability and validity of the questionnaires has limited the capacity to examine associations between PA and health. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported and accelerometer–measured PA and SB and their associations with body composition in Latin American countries.

Dietary Diversity and Micronutrients Adequacy in Women of Childbearing Age

Dietary diversity, an important component of diet quality, is associated with an increased probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Women of childbearing age (WCA) are particularly

vulnerable to micronutrient inadequacy. The Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) has been used widely as a proxy measurement of micronutrient adequacy

Breakfast Consumption Habit and Its Nutritional Contribution in Latin America

 The aim of this study was to provide updated data on breakfast consumption, associated factors and its contribution to daily intakes among Latin American populations. A total of 9218 subjects, 15 to 65 years old, were evaluated in the ELANS study, a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted in eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela). Dietary data were obtained by two 24 h dietary recalls.